Counselling Code

SNS TECH Autonomy



Dr.S.N.Subbramanaian Chairman, SNS Group of Institutions


Concept of Autonomy

  • The autonomy is defined in terms of freedom to prescribe courses of studies and device methods of teaching and evaluation
  • Autonomy and freedom (Academic, financial and administrative) should be accompanied by accountability


Aims of Autonomy
  • Opportunity to the teachers and students to make innovations
  • Utilize their creative talents
  • Improve the standard of teaching, examination and research
  • Quickly respond to social needs
An Autonomous College will take up the responsibility of
  • The academic programmes
  • The content and the quality of teaching
  • The admission and the assessment of students
The responsibility of Autonomous College
  • An autonomous College will be fully accountable for the content and quality of education that it imparts
  • The students would receive greater individual attention on the basis of their needs and aptitude
  • Autonomy would encourage the students to think clearly, critically and creatively and to express themselves effectively

The Kothari Commission (1964 – 1966) considered autonomy a must for intellectual development and had recommended

  • Freedom in curriculum design
  • Adoption of new teaching – learning methods
  • Revision of rules for admission
  • Implementation of separate evaluation methods
  • Introduction of specific programmes

'Our higher education has to be internationally comparable in quality'

– Rastogi Report

'Quality institutions need freedom to experiment'

– Hindu, January 13, 1998

UGC Guidelines for Autonomous Colleges

They will have freedom to

  • Determine and prescribe its own courses of study and syllabi
  • Prescribe rules for admission in consonance with the reservation policy of the state government
  • Evolve methods of assessment of student work, the conduct of examinations and notification of results
  • Implementation of separate evaluation methods
  • Use modern tools of educational technology to achieve higher standards and greater creativity
Accountability of Autonomy
  • Accountability for personal, financial and physical resources in relation to the specific academic objectives and overall national development
External accountability may include
  • Analysis of the content of the courses
  • Course options
  • Co-curricular and extra-curricular activities
  • Performance of the students
  • Students' employment
  • Contribution to generation of knowledge and
  • Teachers' contribution to extension etc
Internal accountability may include
  • Resource acquisition
  • Efficiency index
  • Average work load
  • Average time distribution between lectures, tutorials / practicals
  • Group discussions
  • Project work
  • Teaching aids used
  • Programmes and activities planned and implemented
  • Professional development of teachers
  • Utilization of infrastructural facilities
  • Number of books / journals in the library

Academic Autonomy


  • The concept of autonomy was meant to promote academic independence as well as excellence
  • It also encouraged the introduction of innovations in order to improve the standard of education
  • Quality assurance and higher academic standards
  • Being an examination oriented system, teaching is to a certain extent subordinated to examinations
  • Testing and evaluation must help towards assessing several dimensions of the learner
Role of the Teacher – The 3 C's
  • Commitment: Personal commitment of the teacher to his skills and emotional commitment of working together as a team
  • Competence: Always exploring new areas as there is scope for creativity
  • Compassion: Looking at the students through the eyes of God
Curriculum Designing


  • Curriculum is the sum total of experiences that the student receives through a variety of activities in the College
  • In the classroom, library, laboratory, playground, in informational contacts between teachers and students etc

Curriculum = Syllabus = Courses of studies

Nature of curriculum
  • Curriculum exists only in the experience of the students
  • Curriculum includes more than the content to be learnt
  • The College curriculum is an enterprise in guiding and living
  • The curriculum is a specialized learning environment with a focus on the interests and abilities of students towards effective participation in the life of the community and nation

Need – based system approach (based on collective thinking of faculty members)

Knowledge development (Broad-based)

  • The content (Courses and Syllabi)
  • Instruction
  • Visits
  • Resource development (Human and material)
  • Exchange programmes
Skill development
  • Instruction methods
  • In-house training
  • Placement
  • Evaluation methods
  • Co-curricular activities
Character ethics development
  • Teaching / learning methods
  • Co-curricular activities
  • Well designed academic system
Need For Redesigning Of Courses / System

Assumptions of the present system

  • The present curriculum does not meet the legitimate aspirations of the students and the society
  • There exists very little flexibility in the academic programme (choice and time limit)
  • The courses are devoid of practical and immediate value to the student and does not prepare him for employment
  • The present curriculum design lacks multidisciplinary approach
  • The present system does not encourage sufficient quantum of initiative for institutional industry interaction
  • Reduction of language load (restyling the language instruction for effective communication)
  • Scope for flexibility in course combination (cafeteria model)
  • Vertical integration between school level and college course contents
  • Unitary / broad-based syllabi
  • Restructuring of Question paper pattern – to elicit creativity
  • Better and efficient utilization of available infrastructure
How to update the curriculum?
  • Need based
  • Socially relevant
  • Promote creativity in students
  • Job / Career Oriented
  • Research – based
  • Value / ethic based
Teaching Methods
  • Collaborative teaching
  • Team teaching
  • Formal lectures
  • On the spot study
  • Project work
  • Demonstrative experiments
  • Group discussions
  • Guided library work
  • Research seminars
Instructional Materials
  • Books and journals
  • Booklets
  • Course handouts
  • Maps, charts, diagrams, models
  • Audio – visual aids: slides, transparencies OHPs, LCDs, VCRs, DVDs
  • Live and preserved specimens
  • Demonstration kits
  • Software for teaching
  • Continuous assessment and innovative methods of evaluation (objective questioning, assignments, seminars, viva, quizzes)
  • Course teacher evaluation
  • Question setting by external examiners
  • Freedom to change the question paper pattern
  • Double valuation of end semester exams
  • Provision for revaluation and retotalling
  • Adhering to transparency in evaluation
  • Supplementary end semester exams
  • Improvement of CIA
  • Project and Viva Voce
  • On the spot study reports
  • Oral examinations for languages
  • Periodical Review of assessment methods

Academic Autonomy

Objectives of credit system
  • To provide mobility and Flexibility for the Students within and out of the parent department
  • To provide broad - based education
  • To help the students to learn at their own pace
  • To provide the students a scope for acquiring extra credits
  • To impart more job oriented skills to the students and
  • To make many course multi - disciplinary in approach
What is a credit?
  • Credit refers to the weightage given to a course in relation to the hours assigned for it
  • Generally one hour per week has one credit
  • There could be some flexibility because of the practicals, field visits and tutorials comprising a Course
  • The Credit cannot be greater than the hours, giving high number of hours and credits for any individual paper must be avoided
  • There should be some logic in the allotment of hours and credits
  • Credits for STAND and Service Organisations are symbolic. The Credits in there, in no way match to the Hours spent
General Objectives of UG Courses
  • To develop language skills
  • To impart a relevant, ethical and socially harmonious value education, which would mould both character and personality development
  • To broaden the outlook of the students by interdisciplinary approach
  • To offer student-oriented and employment-relevant applied courses
  • To offer functional computer skills linked to the discipline of study
  • To prepare the students for various competitive examinations
Course Structure : UG Courses
  • Languages and Foundation courses
  • Core courses
  • Core special courses
  • Core applied courses
  • Core supportive courses
  • Extra departmental courses and extra credit
  • Outreach programmes and participation courses inservice organisations
  • 'Credits' is the language understood by the institutions worldwide. Roughly '80-120' credits are used to denominate an undergraduate course worldwide. Therefore it is imperative that we also follow the same pattern so as to enable our students to move horizontally and vertically within the country
  • CBCS will enable the students to acquire knowledge in more than one major if the students select their courses diligently. By adding sufficient credits in other disciplines, additional degrees become possible with little extra time spent by the students
  • Flexibility given to the students might improve their interest in studies. They might show more keenness in the pursuit of studies meaningfully
  • CBCS is likely to alter the existing mind set of academicians, propelling them into radically change curriculum designing, teaching methodology and evaluation techniques
  • The quality of education offered under Choice Based Credit System may be comparable to overseas graduate programmes
  • Team teaching will be possible with the credit system
  • There is also a possibility for a motivated student to secure more credits. There is a choice of subjects available
  • There is guest lecturers, audited courses, flexibility to choose other papers, from other disciplines and even practicals in literature classes
  • There is democracy in classroom interaction which will provide a student-friendly atmosphere
  • This curriculum will prepare the learner to be involved in social problems
  • Core applied courses
  • Core supportive courses
  • Extra departmental courses and extra credit
  • Outreach programmes and participation courses inservice organisations


  • Existing workload and appointment norms will hamper and initiate drastically
  • Resistance to change on the part of administrators and academicians to experiment with the new changes
  • A meticulous planning and a radical curriculum designing is required. Cosmetic changes will not serve the purpose
  • Substantial financial outlay for implementation and if necessary for appointment of teachers is required